to my home page concerning Electrogravitational Field Theory. This work
presents a study of electrogravitational field
mechanics leading to a solution of the actual
gravitational mechanism. Here you will find links to
my free e-book, "Electrogravitation As A Unified Field
Theory", as well as related files, some of which are
animated graphics types. The book is in Adobe
Acrobat PDF format and is readable across
most PC platforms via the free Adobe
Acrobat Reader available from the download link area below. --Jerry E.
FREE EBOOK: Electrogravitation As A Unified Field Theory by
Jerry E. Bayles
By joining theYAHOO
mail list you can
download the entire 240 page ZIP compacted ebook
in Adobe Acrobat
Format. After joining the mail list, the book is available
by clicking on
the "files" at the left side of the members page. Open the
folder EGBook to
access the file Newgrav3.zip.
of Theory and Proofs (06-09-99):GO:THEORY
below formula best describes the
electrogravitational action as I see it. It is the result
of a two- system variable vector magnetic potential (A), and a force
constant FQK, where FQK is independent of distance, much like David
Bohm's quantum Q energy potential principle.
Click on the
below equation for an explanation of its meaning related to recent
variable |-------- constant newton --------| variable
The equation above may be
adapted to all of the known forces, quantum or macroscopic. The
equation is developed in chapter 12 of my e-book,
"Electrogravitation As A Unified Field Theory", and may be downloaded
free by clicking on the highlighted text above.
03, 2017: QUANTUM
FARADAY MOTOR PROVIDES LIFT! Using A Sensitive Electronic
Balance-Beam Scale, The Quantum Faraday Magnetic Motor YouTube
Video Demonstrates Empirical Proof That There Is An Asymmetry Of
Lifting Force Depending On The Direction Of The Motor Rotation.
Further, The Motor Shows Action Of Lift As Though The Lifting Rate Of
Rotation Slips Into And Out Of Phase With The Vertical Magnetic
Standing Wave (Inherant To The Magnet Field Itself) At The Center
Of The Motor. This Is Similar To Flying Vamina Action Of Ancient
India History That Lifted And Fell As They Flew Along.
NOV. 24, 2017: Paper with
mathematical explanation of why the Quantum Magnetic Motor worked.
(Referenced below, Oct. 27, 2017).
27, 2017: Empirical tests on
the "Experimental Quantum A-Vector Motor" (Oct. 16, 2017 Below) proves
that there exists an asymmetry in the magnetic field such that there is
a velocity differential in a copper cylinder that is rotating around a
magnet. With an equal standard current vertical in the cylinder in
parallel with the magnetic field of the magnet, the rate of rotation is
not the same in regards to a current direction through the copper
cylinder that controls the direction of rotation. The following You
Tube video link shows this to be a fact, proving that there is a slow
field rotation around the rod magnet which is linked directly to the
quantum fine structure constant, wherein the velocity of rotation is
equal to the square root of the fine structure constant in meter per
second units. This action is a macroscopic display of a quantum
Proof that magnetohydrodynamic forces in the mercury contactor do not
exist due to the design of the motor wherein the sum of the current
vectors cancel each other out. Thus, the rotational motion of the motor
is due only to the electrogravitational least quantum velocity which is
defined as being equal to the square root of the fine structure
constant in meter per second units.
Also, Quantum Faraday Motor Construction
16, 2017: Experimental Quantum A-Vector Faraday-style
motor demonstration that verifies that Faraday discovered much more
than "motor action" in the film of Sept. 13, 2017 (below this post).
Ordinary motors have the magnetic flux, the electric current and the
motion all 90 degrees to each other. The Faraday demonstration has the
current and magnetic flux parallel to each other while the
A-vector drags the current carrier along with it. The dot product of
the current and A-vector is force in Newtons and this propels the
current carrier in circulating fashion.
Sept. 13, 2017: Excellent
demonstration of Faraday test replication (video excerpt) where I have
concluded that Faraday verified what I call in my Theory Of
Electrogravitation, "The Least Quantum Velocity vLM,"
which is equal to the square root of the fine structure constant in
meter per second units. The rotating wire holds a constant velocity
which suggests that it does not demonstrate ordinary motor action which
would tend to make the moving wire speed up over time but rather it
shows the wire following a constant velocity vector. The video is
copied from a local PBS tv station program which is in itself is from a
video "DISCOVER, Ultimate DVD Library, Einstein's Big Idea".
Related tests recorded on video
establish that the magnetic field around spinning magnets show a
difference in resonance frequency between a rising speed of rotation
and a slowing speed of rotation such that the difference in the rate of
rotation that causes resonance with nearby indicator magnets will yield
the least quantum electrogravitational velocity vLM. This is equal to
the square root of the quantum fine structure constant in meter per
second units and is well established on this web site in numerous
published works herein. The gravitational field of the Earth interacts
vertically against the speed differential where the change in momentum
of the field in the magnetic disks per unit time adds and subtracts
from the gravitational force to create the differential speed of
rotation indication on the electronic counter. This is also related to
how Faraday generators work wherein the spinning magnetic disks exhibit
a field motion latency that "hangs" nearly motionless around the
spinning disks thus creating generator action with no other field
provided. The field DOES move and I propose that it moves at the rate
of vLM but in a direction set by the magnetic field polarity of the
magnetic disks. Then gravity and vLM are linked fundamentally and
empirically as necessary for gravitational force.
August 21, 2017: Ordinary
waveguide mechanics are useful for creating non-local action and are
demonstrated to unify the General and Special theories of Relativity to
my theory of Quantum Electrogravitation. Updated version on August 30,
For relevant figures in pdf format:
April 27, 2017: Chaos
Demonstrated by the Logistic Difference Equation Illustrates How
Reality Is Discontinuous If Itterated To The Point Of Bifurcation And
How That Action Strongly Suggests That The Universe May Well Be A Giant
CREATION EQUATION: Feb. 07, 2017:
God is the greatest mathematician as well as omniscient, omnipotent,
and omnipresent. A fundamental equation creates something out of
nothing ad infinite.
UPDATED Jan. 30, 2017:
Field action diagram added on page 6 that details the generation and
that creates the lifting force field as well as being able to generate
a tractor or
repulsion beam which can also shake solid matter to a powder if
Flying saucer design is based on
creating a macroscopic quantum field to allow
for quantum jumps without inertial effects and also propulsion via the
A-vector quantum magnetic potential.
Nov. 01, 2016: This paper will serve to unite
fundamental parameters involving the quantum fine structure constant,
the hyperfine frequency of the hydrogen atom, the Golden Ratio, the
elctrogravitational frequency of my own theory of "Electrogravitation
As A Unified Field Theory", as well as the 60 Hz field as a fundamental
constant in nature with the geometry built into the design of the Great
Pyramid at Giza in Egypt.
09, 2014: General
Relativity is subsumed to my Theory Of Electrogravitation. All forces unified.
Sept. 14, 2014: Atomic and
molecular "jitter' or vibration may be explained as offset force due to
inertial force segments occurring at random orientations around the
particles. It is shown that this is possible based on fundamental and
empirically established quantum constants of nature. Alignment of
this offset force may be used for propulsion and explain the action of
ocean shore waves.
Jan. 27, 2014: This newest
form of the elctrogravitational equation is the long sought after
format which not only provides the same result numerically as Newton's
gravitational formula but also the single Newton force parameter
result. As such, it stands as the first real unification. of the fields
UPDATE Addendum, June 06, 2014:
In summation, all the forces in local space depends on the non-local
least quantum velocity vLM and the force connector that sets
the scale of the force. The energy gate width in meters squared is the
window from energy space that controls the magnitude of the force
connector. If it were possible to control the force gate width,
unlimited force field energy would be available. Force fields could be
generated for energy supplies, weapons, energy transmission over
unlimited distances and instantaneous communications.
Jan. 14, 2014:
Unification of all forces with new two-step formulae that
generates rapidly increasing or decreasing energy with a few parameter
changes. The Great Pyramid at Giza demonstrates that the builders of
the pyramid understood quantum structure and incorporated the fact into
the pyramids design. The new approach to electrogravitation results in
a single newton unit output that melds into the structure of my
original equations so as to create a tornado type of structure.
Explains why the Earth, Sun and even galaxies rotate. The new formula
suggest why and how the Big Bang grew at such a fast rate but also
suggests that a big crunch could happen just as fast.
Sept. 03, 2013: The
Schrodinger equation is presented in my electrogravitational format.
08, 2013: Test results of acoustical resonance characteristics
of two long mast thin-walled steel pipes that have graduated pipe
diameters to cause a change in the energy gradient along the inside of
the pipe of the sound wave energy. This is a test of the below Mar. 01,
Mar. 01, 2013:
Mathematical proof of the mechanics of energy induction from the proton
pressure wave via the special geometry of a volume change in metal pipe
that synchronizes the acoustic wave to the hyperfine wavelength
of the Hydrogen atom at 21 cm.
31, 2013: A units correction factor is derived that allows
for the Electrogravitational Force Equation to yield a singular Newton
unit and still maintain the force to be inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between systems. Paper also derives a
correct statement for the Newtonian Gravitational Constant. Feynman
once remarked that He thought that the Gravitational Constant probably
needed different units so as to allow for a complete connection between
gravitational force and the electric and magnetic force fields.
26, 2012: A Treatise on quantum mechanics related to
electrogravitation and free energy associated with same.
17, 2012: Paper that offers a methodology of how Edward
Leedskalnin and the ancient Pyramid Builders lifted huge massive stone
monoliths with ease.
Oct. 24, 2012: Paper and
video that explains a recent test where it was shown that a 90 degree
shift in three dimensional space of the magnetic, electric and
A-vectors can explain why energy can be decoupled from a spinning
magnet and then be captured from the resultant field system without
loading the original system.
Paper: GO: http://www.electrogravity.com/FreeEnergyGen/FreeEnergySystemTest.pdf
Video: GO: http://youtu.be/TnSAfL7z7go
17, 2012: Paper that develops the concept of how the fine
structure constant has angular considerations that not only connects it
to the square of the Golden Ratio but also regenerates itself.
Mar. 16, 2012:
Paper that expands on the below paper where the Quantum Circulation
Constant is shown to have hidden geometrical framework that explains
the dynamics of the Universe.
Feb. 06, 2012: Paper that
ranges from quantum scaling factors that define the size
of the universe to how the fine structure constant determines the size
the Great Pyramid in Egypt. Also how perturbation of the least quantum
of circulation constant in Heisenberg's equations of uncertainty
can set the scale of all of the force fields and provide free
Dec. 01, 2011:
current transformers demonstrate that the A-Vector is not shielded when
passing through iron pipe. This is the basic principle of current
transformers in commercial power generation metering and protective
relays, yet is not common knowledge. The A Vector is fundamental to my
theory of Electrogravitation As A Unified Field Theory.
Dec. 08, 2010: Tests
reveal that at a critical rate of revolution, my improved Brushless
Faraday 4-pole generator running into a short will run as a motor.
Also: Dec. 27, 2010: Salient test data for the above generator.
Dec. 29, 2010:It is proven that shorting the brushless Faraday Free
Energy Generator coils not only causes an increase in rotation speed
but also causes a decrease of drive current to the prime mover a.c.
motor. This is opposite to conventional generator/motor action. Thus,
it is proven that this device taps into free energy from energy space
which is the same energy source that created and sustains the universe.
Oct. 12, 2010: Four-disk power out test of the
brushless Faraday disk magnet. This is a demonstration test of power
out from four strong disk magnets in rotation that do not reflect a
load back to the prime mover. This proves that there is a standing wave
field around the disk magnets as did the 1 and 2 disk tests previous.
Also Four-disk balance magnet
resonance tests. The fundamental electrogravitational
frequency of 10.03 Hz is measured as a strong resonance along with
others that prove the standing wave field exists around the disk
magnets which leads to chiral energy differences that arise from a
spiral geometry moving outwards from the disks. This is free energy and
proof that energy is not balanced around the disks.
05, 2010: One-disk balance magnets resonance
test show similar action as the previous two-disk test but with
different frequencies of resonances.
Sept. 29, 2010: Video
demonstrates that a 1-disk brushless Faraday Generator works as well as
a 2-disk system but with about 3/4 the output voltage. Also, proof that
the Faraday Brushless Concept does not load down the drive motor while
an equivalently loaded d.c. generator does. The result is shown in a
reduction of shaft speed when the conventional generator is connected
to a load that absorbs the same amount of power that the Faraday
brushless generator delivers. This is absolute proof of the value of
the Brushless Faraday Generator
Also in original .mov format (166 MB):
Sept. 25, 2010: Chiral
Magnetic Field Demonstration of a two-magnet system wherein it is
proven that a slight difference in the energy density between the left
and right sides of a balanced magnetic
field arrangement yields a
Magnetic Standing Wave Resonance Tests:
Sep. 08, 2010: A
Windows Movie Media (WMV) video that shows that the standing wave field
around an inline pair of magnet disks has a non-parity in the left
verses the right side of the disks at different speeds of rotation.
Further, that the Schumann frequency is on the right side and a
frequency is on the left side such that the difference frequency
multiplied by the circumference of the disks yields the
electrogravitational fundamental velocity equal to the square root of
the fine structure constant in meter per second units. Thus a
strong validation of my theory of Electrogravitation is the result. GO: http://www.electrogravity.com/BMRT/BalMagResTests.wmv
Macroscopic Demonstration Of Quantum
Electron Spin In A Split Disk Magnet Field:
Aug. 11, 2010: A Windows
Movie Media (WMV) video that demonstrates electron spin 1/2 action in a
split magnetic field wherein a pair of small balance magnets is shown
to have to be moved around a pair of disk magnets twice to have the
small pair of magnets to return to the starting position. Also,
non-parity of the balance magnets which are 90 degrees to each other
across the sides of the disks which may explain the asymmetry of Beta
decay from Cobalt-60 measured by Madam Wu back in the 1950's. GO: http://www.electrogravity.com/EST/ElctrnSpinTest_0001.wmv
Of Concept Test Report: July 21, 2010: Abstract: A simple test is performed on a
brushless a. c. pickup Faraday generator wherein it is shown that power
extraction does not slow down the prime mover. Then it is
shown that a conventional generator loaded at the same power does
slow down the prime mover significantly. The result indicates a vast
improvement over conventional power generation methods.
Also: Demonstration of Brushless
Faraday Generator Providing Power To A Small Incandescent Lamp:
BREAKTHROUGH!! July 11, 2010:
Successful Brushless A.C. Power Extraction From
The Faraday Acyclic Generator! Power is already a.c. at the rotation
rate of the magnetic disks!
The magnets used in this test report may be obtained at the following
23, 2010: The missing Toroid A-vector Telos Research Paper that
strangely dissappeared a couple of years ago on the web and was
rediscovered by myself recently on my archive disk.
10, 2010: A collection of work for the years 2009 and early 2010. In
Adobe Acrobat format. The A-vector forms the foundation for matter and
fields, the Faraday Generator quantum theory, and much more.
04, 2010: Test
of a Faraday Generator demonstrates free energy is possible. The power
output is related to the fourth power of the radius increase which
allows for a decrease in rotation speed and still have a gain in power.
Proof of Concept Paper : http://www.electrogravity.com/FaradayGenTests/FaradayGenTheory.pdf
01, 2009: New Paper Presents The Faraday Motor Principle As A Method
For Free Energy And Craft Levitation And Propulsion.
Oct. 16, 2008: The Mathcad source files are
available for those who
have the Mathcad software versions 6.0 and 2001i. Click on: Version
6.0 or Version
This posting is in
to numerous requests for the Mathcad source files. Enjoy!
04, 2008: Einstein's E = mc2
is shown to have relativistic solutions involving the square root of
two and the Golden Ratio which are both irrational numbers. The
solutions derive the same momentum and so called rest mass energy but
arrive at the result in a way that conforms to the Special Theory of
June 22, 2008: Hydrogen energy
extraction from the proton pressure wave
is shown to be connected to a universal quantum non-local force
constant. This force constant connection to energy space also ties
together magnetic field energy extraction and electrogravitation.
This is the answer to eliminating global warming by fossil fuel
consumption. The method shown provides clean free energy without
limit. Also is possible deep space travel via the force field provided
by the electrogravitational force field being supported by the
universal energy space quantum force constant gate.
ADDENDUM: March 22, 2008: Starting
on page 9 titled, "In The Beginning," the
addendum begins with: "In the following addendum to the above paper,
the beginning of the universe is examined in terms of the least Plank
time and Plank radius. It will be developed through use of the
Heisenberg uncertainty equation that the beginning energy is far less
than what exists in the present day universe. As a result, the
conclusion is that the energy input to the universe is ongoing and has
been since the very beginning. This meshes with the concept of field
growth potential of unterminated charges yielding potentially an
infinite energy increase over time. The universe therefore is
continually seeding itself for unlimited growth." Also the Higg's
probable mass is calculated and much more.
proof of a dynamic energy hidden in the so-called static electric and
magnetic fields. Not only do fields flow, but the energy is potentially
unlimited in the unterminated case. Explains dark matter and negative
energy growth in the universe as a result.
ADDENDUM: April 08, 2008:
Extension of the below paper which includes a
total use of the complex form of the fine structure constant which ties
in to the paper EnergySpiral_3.pdf listed below.
Dec. 29, 2007: Updated proof of the necessary existance of the
Quantum Electrogravitational Frequency based on mathematics involving
established quantum parameters . An addendum is added with further
derivation of why there exists a form of the fine structure constant
that has a least quantum value equal to the fine structure constant in
magnitude but also having units of velocity squared. Includes
'imaginary' values which must occur in the quantum realm.
22, 2007: Suggested test for the speed of electrogravity (gravity)
involving solitons trapped in a ring in a two dimensional plane
control lattice that may be perturbed or jerked so as to test for
instantaneous interaction with a similar lattice containing a like
July 09, 2007: Extended
Analysis And Report of High Voltage Free Energy Event.
Stunning results reveal methodology of free energy extraction. GO: http://www.electrogravity.com/EnergyPipe/EnergyPipe_Add1.pdf
(Posted Nov. 29,
2006): Hydrogen Free Energy Supplies Power For Energy Beam To End War.
(Posted Sept. 03, 2006): Tornado Dynamics: A Method Of Power
(Posted June 25, 2006): Energy
induction from energy space
utilizing the Caduceus coil as an ionized plasma Helmholtz resonator.
Anti-gravity and limitless free energy. GO: http://www.electrogravity.com/DeltaEnergyCoil/DeltaEnergyCoil.pdf
(Posted June 25,
2006): Mandelbrot "lake" in three dimensional
rendering. Suggests a possible reason for power generation blackouts
due to instabilities caused by fractal disturbances in the imaginary
(Posted May 16, 2006): Creation of
Matter From Energy Double Cross-Product Solution For
Electrogravitation. GO: http://www.electrogravity.com/PrimePwr/PrimePwr.pdf
MOMENT! Keys To The Universe: Dec. 10, 2005: Foundation Paper provides
for free energy and control of gravitation based on established
empiricle data and formulae.
paper in Adobe Acrobat format: (Updated 02-10-2006)
The first part, "Particle Field
Energy Down-Scaling Via A new Complex Fine Structure Constant",
pages 1-26, introduces a new complex fine
structure constant which is used to create 10 down-scaled energy
dimensions which further arrives at the least quantum
electrogravitational velocity equal to the square root of the
ordinary fine structure constant in meter/second units. The new complex
fine structure constant is based on an imaginary value for the square
root of the Golden Ratio used as a power series with the fine structure
constant. The fine structure constant is derived from
difference at 90 degrees between the Natural Spiral based on (e) and
the square root of the golden ratio. Also, independent of
proton mass calculations, connects the first complex energy reduction
to the geometry of the proton's necessary field velocity and mass ratio
above the electron mass. Finally, derives the necessary field
considerations for justifying that the Great Pyramid at Giza was most
likely a giant acoustical/electric power generator based on the square
root of the Golden Ratio. Paper is a significant extension
of "The Golden Ratio
And The Fine Structure
Constant" which is listed below.
The second part, "Hydrogen As A Free
Energy Source Defines A new Universe" pages 26-37. Provides
theoretical conceptual and
mathematical basis for the results of lifters, electrokinetic force
thrusters, cold fusion, Mollars Atomic Hydrogen Energy Generator, the
Cosmic Background Radiation, the Atomic Hydrogen Fine Structure
Constant Frequency and much more. Provides the solution for all of
humanitys energy needs for now and in the future. It ties together
Jean-Louis Naudin's work as well as Miklos Borbas's work and many
others such as T. T. Brown. Click on the below link for updated paper.
The third part, "Negative Energy And
pages 38-42, provides the mathematical proof that the electron and the
proton both create a positive pressure wave but have positive and
negative energy fields respectively. Further provides a foundation for
the concept of a positive and negative non-local universe apart from
our normal universe. Establishes our local universe as sandwiched
in between the positive and negative non-local energy domains.
(04-19-2005) UFO sounds and sound analysis. GO: UFOClips
(04-17-2005) Updated: Sinewave Tests Cause
Gravitational Attraction. Also, previous balance beam current
transformer test provides positive correlation with
another's online test. This is demonstrated by the Vector Magnetic
Potential (A-Vector) in the pulsed current mode causing a torus
winding to interact with and repel the
gravitational field of the Earth. This provides substantial proof of
the electrogravitational concept shown in my gravitational equation
above. GO: AVector
Torus Test Proof
New Paper in PDF format: "The Golden Ratio And The Fine Structure
Constant." It is shown that the golden ratio overshoots the expected
magnitude at the zero crossing of the real number line by a magnitude
that allows for the development of excess energy. This excess energy is
in the range of the fine structure constant when compared the the rest
mass energy of an electron. The necessary correction factor yields a
frequency that is equal to the resonant frequency of the King's Chamber
in the Great Pyramid at Giza. Includes appendix describing the
construction fundamentals of the golden ratio.
(02-12-2005) Paper in PDF
format: "Quantum Electrogravitational Constants Of
Force And Time." This paper expands on a previous paper below (Link
DUALFREQPDF). Provides further proof that the
electrogravitational concept is a true approach to the solution of
uniting all force fields as well as what the real nature of the
gravitational mechanism is.
(Updated 07-19-2004) (Second Update 08-09-2004) (Third Update 08-26-2004) (Fourth Update 09-21-2004). A two
frequency solution of the above electrogravitational
equation where the force constant Fqk is shown to have both
electromagnetic as well as quantum frequency constant that can be
tested for as to their actual existence. The same applies to the (A)
vector wherein a two frequency solution involving an electromagnetic
as well as quantum frequency constant may also apply.
The first update
provides actual frequency and velocity parameters as well as a possible
test equipment setup.
update reveals hidden fundamental ultrasonic frequencies related
to the vector magnetic potential magnetic flux constant in the above
equation as well as a fundamental frequency constant associated with
the force constant. The importance of the fine structure constant is
revealed to show that the Schumann frequency can be related to the
electrogravitational frequency via the new hidden fundamental
frequencies. (We should discover the Schumann frequency of 7.879309193
other planets as well as here on Earth.)
The third update derives a frequency constant associated with
the magnetic permeability of free space and and therefore is not only
relevant to magnetic fields but to all electromagnetic fields and quite
possibly mass since I propose that rest mass is energy in the form of a
non-radiating field of standing waves.
The fourth update provides
a solution for creating mass out of two changing frequencies which in
turn create an acceleration field. First, an energy field is initially
created where both frequencies related to the free space impedance and
the permeability and permittivity are seen to be equal and then the
impedance is set equal to the Quantum Hall ohm and we see two distinct
frequencies that define a mass field. Explains pair production as well
as creation of a projected mass field such as would create crop circles
and force impact beams useful as mass movers.
PDF: DUALFREQPDF Also, Area 51 S-4 Saucer
PAPER: (04-29-2004) Coherent Power
Generation based on self organization of both natural and imposed
fractal energy feedback and control. Includes a possible spacecraft
propulsion system based on momentum gain via a non-linear medium of
propagation and how Nyquist noise may be connected to
electrogravitational least quantum energy as well as zero point energy.
A Proposed Test For
Determining The Mechanics of Electrogravitation in Four Parts. This is
a major extension of the paper AVECTOR below. The file is in
Adobe Acrobat PDF format. GO: AVecDisk.PDF
A Windows movie file may be downloaded which illustrates wavefunction
packet motion. GO: AVecPack.avi
(Sep. 30, 2003)
The Vector Magnetic Potential May Accelerate Matter As A General
Of The (A) Vector's Fast Rate Of Change With Respect To Time. GO: AVECTOR
ALSO IN Adobe Acrobat PDF FORMAT: GO : AVecWave.PDF
Propulsion" as presented to the D04 Session, STAIF-2003 Conference in
Albuquerque, NM on Feb. 04, 2003. GO: QVP
MY EG PAPERS,
PROGRAMS and LETTERS
OTHER'S PAPERS, etc.
RELATED EG TESTS
Pages and contents copyright
1998 by Jerry E. Bayles.